BHIC-134 ( HISTORY OF INDIA: 1707-1950 ) || ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023 ( English Medium )
TODAY TOPIC- BHIC-134 HISTORY OF INDIA: 1707-1950- ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023- English Medium
Course code: BHIC-134
BHIC 134: HISTORY OF INDIA: 1707-1950
Note: There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.
Assignment - I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Was there a political revolution in Bengal between 1757-1765 ? Discuss. ( 20 Marks )
- The period between 1757 and 1765 witnessed a significant political transformation in Bengal.
- The arrival of the British East India Company in Bengal in 1757 marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the region.
- The Company's expansionist policies and their alliances with various regional powers brought about a significant change in the political and social landscape of Bengal.
- The period was marked by a series of political upheavals, which can be seen as a revolution in Bengal's political history.
- The Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of British colonialism in India.
- The victory of the East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, established the Company's authority over Bengal.
- The British forces were assisted by the local power brokers, such as Mir Jafar, who were unhappy with Siraj ud-Daulah's policies.
- The Battle of Plassey not only resulted in the British East India Company's control over Bengal, but it also set the stage for the emergence of a new class of power brokers in the region.
- The period between 1757 and 1765 was marked by a series of political uprisings and rebellions against the British East India Company's rule.
- The most significant of these was the Fakir-Sannyasi Rebellion of 1760-61.
- The rebellion was led by a group of Sufi saints and Hindu ascetics who were opposed to the British East India Company's policies of land revenue collection and commercial exploitation.
- The Fakir-Sannyasi Rebellion was an attempt to create a united front of different religious communities against the British colonial rule.
- Although the rebellion was eventually crushed by the British forces, it marked the beginning of a new phase of resistance against colonialism in Bengal.
- The period also witnessed the emergence of regional powers that challenged the British East India Company's authority in Bengal.
- The most significant of these was the rise of the state of Awadh under the Nawabs of Lucknow.
- The Nawabs of Awadh were able to challenge the British East India Company's expansionist policies by forming alliances with other regional powers such as the Mughals, the Marathas, and the French.
- The alliance between the Nawabs of Awadh and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was particularly significant, as it challenged the British East India Company's claim to be the sole legitimate authority in Bengal.
- The period between 1757 and 1765 also witnessed the emergence of a new class of power brokers in Bengal.
- These power brokers were the intermediaries between the British East India Company and the local population.
- They were often members of the landed aristocracy who used their influence and resources to negotiate with the British East India Company for their own interests.
- The British East India Company's alliance with Mir Jafar and the subsequent appointment of Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal in 1757 marked the beginning of this new phase of regional politics.
- In conclusion, the period between 1757 and 1765 witnessed a significant political transformation in Bengal.
- The arrival of the British East India Company marked the beginning of a new era in the region's history.
- The Company's expansionist policies and their alliances with various regional powers brought about a significant change in the political and social landscape of Bengal.
- The period was marked by a series of political uprisings, rebellions, and the emergence of a new class of power brokers.
- All of these can be seen as a revolution in Bengal's political history.
2. Discuss the differences between the Moderates and Extremists in the Indian National Congress. ( 20 Marks )
- The Indian National Congress, established in 1885, was the first political organization that aimed to achieve independence from British rule in India.
- The Congress party, in its early years, was dominated by two factions – the Moderates and the Extremists.
- The Moderates were led by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Pherozeshah Mehta, while the Extremists were led by leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Rai.
- This essay will discuss the differences between the Moderates and Extremists in the Indian National Congress.
- The Moderates believed in the policy of gradualism and were known for their conciliatory approach towards the British government.
- They believed that India could achieve independence by working within the framework of the British system.
- The Moderates were primarily from the educated middle class and were more comfortable with the English language and Western-style education.
- They believed in the importance of education, social reforms, and economic development as the means to achieve independence.
- The Moderates also believed in constitutional methods of agitation, such as petitions, appeals, and peaceful protests, to put pressure on the British government to bring about reforms.
- On the other hand, the Extremists believed in a more aggressive approach towards achieving independence.
- They believed in the policy of swaraj or self-rule and were critical of the British government's policies towards India.
- The Extremists were primarily from the lower middle class and were more rooted in Indian traditions and culture.
- They believed that India's culture and traditions were under threat from British rule and advocated for a return to traditional values.
- The Extremists were also critical of the British education system, which they believed was producing a class of Westernized Indians who had lost touch with their culture.
- One of the primary differences between the Moderates and Extremists was their approach towards the British government.
- The Moderates believed in working with the British government to achieve their goals, while the Extremists believed in challenging the British government's authority in India.
- The Moderates believed that the British government could be convinced to bring about reforms, while the Extremists believed that the British government would never voluntarily give up power in India.
- Another difference between the Moderates and Extremists was their approach towards social and cultural reforms.
- The Moderates believed in the importance of social and cultural reforms, but they believed that these reforms should be introduced gradually and without disrupting Indian traditions.
- The Extremists, on the other hand, believed that social and cultural reforms were essential to India's progress and advocated for their rapid implementation.
- The Moderates and Extremists also had different views on the role of the Congress party.
- The Moderates believed that the Congress party should function as a pressure group, lobbying for reforms within the British system.
- The Extremists believed that the Congress party should function as a mass movement, mobilizing the masses to challenge British rule in India.
- In conclusion, the Moderates and Extremists in the Indian National Congress had different approaches towards achieving independence from British rule.
- The Moderates believed in the policy of gradualism and working within the British system, while the Extremists believed in the policy of swaraj and challenging the British government's authority in India.
- The Moderates were more comfortable with Western-style education and believed in social and cultural reforms, but they believed these reforms should be introduced gradually.
- The Extremists were more rooted in Indian traditions and culture and advocated for rapid social and cultural reforms.
- The Moderates believed that the Congress party should function as a pressure group, while the Extremists believed that it should function as a mass movement.
Assignment - II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
3. What were the main ideas of the Utilitarians ? Discuss. ( 10 Marks )
- Utilitarianism is a moral and ethical philosophy that is based on the principle of maximizing happiness and minimizing suffering for the greatest number of people.
- The main ideas of the Utilitarians were developed by Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and other philosophers of the 18th and 19th centuries.
- The Utilitarians believed that the ultimate goal of human action should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
- They argued that actions should be judged by their ability to produce happiness or pleasure and to reduce pain or suffering.
- According to Utilitarianism, an action is morally right if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
- Another key idea of Utilitarianism is the concept of the "hedonic calculus," which is a method of calculating the amount of pleasure or pain that an action will produce.
- The hedonic calculus takes into account several factors, including the intensity of pleasure or pain, the duration of pleasure or pain, the certainty or uncertainty of pleasure or pain, the extent to which pleasure or pain will be shared, and the likelihood that the action will lead to future pleasure or pain.
- The Utilitarians also believed in the importance of individual freedom and autonomy.
- They argued that individuals should be free to pursue their own happiness as long as their actions do not harm others.
- The Utilitarians believed that the government should protect individual rights and freedoms and should promote policies that maximize the overall happiness of society.
- Overall, the main ideas of the Utilitarians were focused on the promotion of happiness and the reduction of suffering for the greatest number of people.
- They believed in the importance of individual freedom and autonomy and developed a method for calculating the amount of pleasure or pain that an action will produce.
- The Utilitarian philosophy had a significant influence on modern political and social thought, and many of its ideas are still relevant today.
4. Comment on the economic impact of the British rule. ( 10 Marks )
- The British rule had a profound impact on the economy of India, both positive and negative.
- On one hand, the British introduced modern infrastructure, such as railways, telegraphs, and postal services, which helped to improve communication and transport.
- The British also encouraged the growth of modern industries, such as textiles, steel, and mining, which helped to create new jobs and increase production.
- However, the British also imposed high taxes on the Indian population, which led to widespread poverty and a lack of investment in infrastructure and social services.
- The British also implemented policies that favored British-owned businesses over Indian-owned businesses, which made it difficult for Indian entrepreneurs to compete in the market.
- The British also introduced a system of land ownership that favored large landowners over small farmers, which led to the concentration of land in the hands of a few wealthy individuals and the displacement of millions of small farmers.
- This resulted in widespread poverty and a lack of investment in agriculture, which was the primary source of income for most Indians.
- The British also introduced a system of forced labor, known as the "indenture system," which involved the recruitment of Indian workers to work in other British colonies, such as Mauritius and Fiji.
- This system led to the exploitation of Indian workers and the separation of families, as many workers were forced to leave their families behind.
- Overall, while the British rule introduced some positive changes to the Indian economy, such as modern infrastructure and industries, the negative impact of British policies on the Indian economy was significant.
- The British rule led to widespread poverty, the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few, and the exploitation of Indian workers.
- These factors have had a lasting impact on the Indian economy and have contributed to the economic challenges that India faces today.
5. What was the role of the Constituent Assembly in shaping the Indian Constitution ? ( 10 Marks )
- The Constituent Assembly played a significant role in shaping the Indian Constitution.
- The Assembly was established in 1946 to draft a constitution for India, which was then a British colony.
- The Assembly was composed of elected representatives from across India, including the leaders of the Indian National Congress and other political parties.
- The Constituent Assembly spent three years debating and drafting the Constitution, which was adopted on November 26, 1949.
- The Constitution established India as a federal democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government.
- It also included provisions for fundamental rights, the separation of powers, and the independence of the judiciary.
- The Constituent Assembly debated a wide range of issues during the drafting process, including the nature of Indian federalism, the role of the President, the rights of minority communities, and the role of the judiciary.
- The Assembly also debated the issue of economic policy, including the role of the state in the economy.
- One of the key debates in the Constituent Assembly was over the role of religion in the Constitution.
- The Assembly ultimately decided to include provisions for freedom of religion and to establish a secular state.
- This decision was a significant departure from India's previous status as a Hindu-majority colony and helped to establish India as a pluralistic society.
- Overall, the Constituent Assembly played a critical role in shaping the Indian Constitution.
- The Assembly brought together representatives from across India to debate and draft a Constitution that reflected the country's diverse political and social landscape.
- The Constitution remains a cornerstone of India's democratic system of government and has helped to establish India as a major player on the global stage.
Assignment - III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
6. Ryotwari Settlement ( 6 Marks )
- Ryotwari Settlement is a system of land revenue collection where individual cultivators have direct contact with the state.
- This system was introduced by the British during their rule in India.
- Under the Ryotwari Settlement, the cultivator is recognized as the owner of the land and is directly responsible for paying the revenue to the state.
- This system was prevalent in parts of southern India, particularly in Madras Presidency.
7. State formation in Mysore in the 18th century ( 6 Marks )
- In the 18th century, Mysore witnessed the emergence of a powerful state under the leadership of Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan.
- They modernized the army, introduced new technologies, and promoted trade and commerce.
- They also patronized arts and literature, and developed new administrative and revenue systems.
- However, their expansionist policies and conflicts with the British ultimately led to the decline of the Mysore state.
8. The Orientalists in India ( 6 Marks )
- The Orientalists were a group of British scholars who were interested in studying the languages, religions, and cultures of India.
- They believed that studying Indian texts and traditions would help them understand the country and its people.
- The Orientalists translated Indian texts into European languages, established universities, and promoted the study of Indian languages and literature.
- Their work had a significant impact on European perceptions of India and helped to shape the study of Indian culture and history.
9. Communalism ( 6 Marks )
- Communalism refers to the belief that people of different religions or communities cannot coexist peacefully and that their interests are inherently opposed.
- In India, communalism has often been linked to religious identity, particularly between Hindus and Muslims.
- Communalism has led to sectarian violence and has posed a significant challenge to India's secularism and democratic values.
10. Transfer of Power ( 6 Marks )
- The Transfer of Power refers to the transfer of political power from British colonial rule to Indian self-rule.
- This process began in 1947, with the partition of India into two separate countries, India and Pakistan.
- The Transfer of Power was marked by significant violence, displacement, and communal tensions, but it ultimately led to the establishment of India as an independent democratic republic.
- The Transfer of Power remains a significant event in Indian history and continues to shape the country's political and social landscape.
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