BHIC 104 ( SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD ) || ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023 ( English Medium )
TODAY TOPIC- BHIC 104- SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD- ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION
BHIC 104: SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
Course code: BHIC-104
Assignment - I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Analyse the factors that led to the rise of slavery in Rome. What led to a crisis in the slave economy ? ( 20 Marks )
- Slavery played a critical role in the economy of ancient Rome.
- It was a widespread and acceptable practice, and slaves were used in various sectors, including agriculture, mining, domestic service, and public works.
- The use of slavery in Rome was influenced by several factors that contributed to its rise.
- One of the key factors that led to the rise of slavery in Rome was the growth of the Roman Empire.
- As Rome expanded its territories, it required a large workforce to sustain its economy, and slaves became a cheap and abundant source of labor.
- The Roman conquests brought in thousands of slaves from different parts of the empire, and this contributed to the growth of the slave population.
- Another factor that led to the rise of slavery in Rome was the development of the latifundia system.
- Large estates were created, and they required a large workforce to operate them.
- As a result, the owners of these estates turned to slave labor as a means of meeting their labor needs.
- The latifundia system was particularly prevalent in southern Italy and Sicily, where slaves worked in large agricultural estates.
- The Roman legal system also played a role in the rise of slavery.
- Under Roman law, slaves were considered property and could be bought and sold like any other commodity.
- This made it easier for slave traders to operate, and it contributed to the growth of the slave trade.
- Additionally, the Roman legal system did not provide any legal rights or protections for slaves, which made them vulnerable to abuse and mistreatment by their owners.
- the use of slavery in Rome also had its downsides, and it eventually led to a crisis in the slave economy.
- One of the main problems was that the use of slave labor led to a decline in the free labor market.
- Since slave labor was cheaper than free labor, many employers preferred to use slaves, which made it difficult for free workers to find employment.
- This led to a decline in the free labor market and contributed to economic stagnation in Rome.
- Another problem was that the use of slave labor led to a decline in agricultural productivity.
- Since slave labor was cheaper than free labor, slave owners had little incentive to invest in new technologies or improve their farming practices.
- This led to a decline in agricultural productivity and contributed to food shortages in Rome.
- the use of slave labor contributed to social unrest in Rome.
- Slaves were often mistreated and abused, and this led to occasional slave uprisings.
- The most famous of these uprisings was the Spartacus rebellion, which lasted from 73-71 BC and involved thousands of slaves who revolted against their Roman masters.
- the rise of slavery in Rome was influenced by several factors, including the growth of the Roman Empire, the development of the latifundia system, and the Roman legal system.
- the use of slave labor also led to a crisis in the slave economy, which was characterized by a decline in the free labor market, a decline in agricultural productivity, and social unrest.
2. Write a note on the rise of sufi movements and sufi tariqa in the Islamic world. ( 20 Marks )
- The rise of Sufi movements and Sufi tariqas (orders) in the Islamic world played a crucial role in the spread of Islam and the development of Islamic culture.
- The Sufi movement emerged in the eighth century in Iraq and quickly spread to other parts of the Muslim world.
- The Sufi movement emphasized the inner aspects of Islamic practice, such as meditation, devotion, and self-discipline, and sought to cultivate a personal and mystical relationship with God.
- This note will examine the factors that led to the rise of Sufi movements and Sufi tariqas in the Islamic world.
- One of the primary factors that contributed to the rise of Sufi movements was the desire for a more personal and emotional connection with God.
- Traditional Islamic practice emphasized the importance of following the Shariah (Islamic law), but it did not always address the individual’s spiritual needs.
- The Sufi movement provided an alternative that emphasized the importance of inner experience and a personal relationship with God, which resonated with many people in the Islamic world.
- Another factor that contributed to the rise of Sufi movements was the influence of Islamic mysticism. Islamic mysticism, or Tasawwuf, had existed in the Islamic world since the early days of Islam, and it emphasized the importance of spiritual experience and intuition.
- Sufi movements built on this tradition and developed their own practices and teachings that emphasized the importance of spiritual purification, meditation, and contemplation.
- The spread of Sufi movements was also facilitated by the development of the Arabic language and the spread of Islamic scholarship.
- Arabic became the language of Islamic scholarship, and Sufi teachings were recorded and disseminated in Arabic.
- This helped to spread Sufi teachings and practices throughout the Islamic world and beyond.
- Sufi tariqas played a significant role in the spread of Sufi teachings and practices.
- A tariqa is a Sufi order, which is usually led by a spiritual master or sheikh.
- The sheikh provided guidance and instruction to his disciples and helped them to cultivate a personal relationship with God.
- Tariqas were organized around a set of practices and teachings, which were designed to help the disciple achieve spiritual purification and enlightenment.
- Tariqas became particularly popular in the Islamic world during the medieval period.
- They provided a sense of community and belonging for their members and helped to spread Sufi teachings and practices throughout the Islamic world.
- Tariqas also played an important role in the spread of Islam beyond the Islamic world. Sufi masters and their disciples traveled to other parts of the world and established tariqas in places such as India, China, and Southeast Asia.
- In conclusion, the rise of Sufi movements and Sufi tariqas in the Islamic world was influenced by a variety of factors, including a desire for a more personal and emotional connection with God, the influence of Islamic mysticism, the spread of Islamic scholarship, and the popularity of tariqas as a means of spiritual guidance and community.
- Sufi teachings and practices continue to influence Islamic culture and thought today, and the legacy of the Sufi movement is an important part of the Islamic intellectual and spiritual tradition.
Assignment - II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
3. List the main features of the first phase of feudalism. ( 10 Marks )
- The first phase of feudalism, also known as the Early Middle Ages, lasted from the 5th century CE to the 10th century CE.
- During this time, Europe underwent significant social, political, and economic changes.
- Feudalism emerged as the dominant political and economic system, with a hierarchy of lords and vassals, and a focus on agriculture and landownership.
- Below are the main features of the first phase of feudalism:
- After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe was divided into smaller kingdoms and territories ruled by local lords, rather than a central government.
- This led to a decentralized system of power, where local lords had significant control over their territories.
- The feudal economy was based on agriculture and landownership.
- The lords owned large estates, or manors, which were worked by serfs, who were bound to the land.
- The lords provided protection to the serfs in exchange for their labor.
- The feudal system was based on a relationship of mutual obligation between lords and their vassals.
- The lord provided protection and land to the vassal in exchange for military service and loyalty.
- Military Focus: Warfare was a constant threat during this period, and lords relied on their vassals to provide military support.
- The feudal system was built around the idea of mutual defense, with lords providing protection to their vassals in exchange for military service.
- Feudal society was highly stratified, with a clear hierarchy of lords, vassals, and serfs.
- Social mobility was limited, and most people remained in the social class they were born into.
- The Catholic Church played a significant role in feudal society, providing spiritual guidance and acting as a unifying force.
- The church owned significant amounts of land and had significant political power.
4. Write a note on the trading communities of the medieval world. ( 10 Marks )
- Medieval trading communities played a significant role in the economic development of the world during this period.
- These communities consisted of merchants and traders who formed associations to protect their interests, facilitate trade, and expand their networks.
- Below are some key features of these communities:
- Guilds were associations of merchants and craftsmen who worked together to regulate trade and protect their interests.
- They set standards for quality, regulated prices, and provided training for members. Guilds also provided social support for members, such as healthcare and pensions.
- The Hanseatic League was a powerful trading alliance that formed in the 12th century.
- It was made up of merchants from various Northern European cities, who banded together to protect their interests and expand trade.
- The league had significant economic and political power, and controlled trade routes throughout Northern Europe.
- Jewish traders played a significant role in the medieval world.
- They were often excluded from guilds and other trading associations, so they formed their own networks to facilitate trade.
- Jewish traders had a reputation for being trustworthy and reliable, which made them sought after by other merchants.
- Islamic traders dominated trade in the Mediterranean during the medieval period.
- They established trading networks that extended from China to Europe, and played a significant role in the exchange of goods and ideas between these regions.
- Islamic traders also established centers of learning and culture, such as the city of Baghdad.
- The Silk Road was a network of trade routes that connected Asia to Europe.
- It was used to transport goods such as silk, spices, and precious metals, as well as ideas and cultural artifacts.
- The Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of trade and commerce during the medieval period.
5. Discuss briefly the growth of Inca polity in Latin America. ( 10 Marks )
- The Inca Empire was the largest pre-Columbian empire in the Americas, spanning much of the western coast of South America.
- The growth of the Inca polity was a gradual process that began in the early 13th century and continued until the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century.
- Below are some key factors that contributed to the growth of the Inca Empire:
- The Inca Empire grew through military conquest.
- The Incas used their military power to conquer neighboring peoples, and then incorporated them into their empire.
- They used a combination of force and diplomacy to establish control over their subjects.
- The Inca Empire was highly centralized, with a complex administrative system that helped to maintain control over its subjects.
- The empire was divided into administrative regions called provinces, each of which was governed by a governor appointed by the emperor.
- The Incas built a network of roads that connected the various parts of their empire.
- This made it easier to move troops and goods, and facilitated communication and trade.
- The Incas developed innovative agricultural techniques that allowed them to grow crops at high altitudes and in harsh environments.
- This allowed them to support a large population and helped to fuel their expansion.
- The Inca Empire was organized into a strict social hierarchy, with the emperor at the top, followed by the nobility, commoners, and slaves.
- This social structure helped to maintain order and stability within the empire.
Assignment - III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
6. Process of Hellenization and the influence of Greek philosophers on the Roman world ( 6 Marks )
- The process of Hellenization refers to the spread of Greek culture, language, and ideas throughout the ancient world.
- It had a profound impact on the Roman world, particularly on the ruling elite, who adopted Greek philosophical ideas and incorporated them into their own worldview.
- Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle had a significant influence on Roman intellectuals, who embraced their ideas on ethics, politics, and metaphysics.
7. Popular revolts in the Abbasid Caliphate ( 6 Marks )
- The Abbasid Caliphate was marked by several popular revolts, which were often sparked by economic, political, or religious grievances.
- These revolts were led by various groups, including peasants, slaves, and urban workers, who sought to challenge the ruling elite and demand greater rights and freedoms.
- Some of the most significant revolts included the Zanj Rebellion and the Revolt of Abu Muslim.
8. Christianization of Europe ( 6 Marks )
- The Christianization of Europe refers to the spread of Christianity throughout the continent, which began in the 4th century CE.
- Christianity became the dominant religion of Europe, and had a profound impact on its culture, politics, and society.
- The spread of Christianity was aided by the conversion of rulers and elites, who used their power to promote the religion and build churches and other religious institutions.
9. Growth of mines and metallurgy in medieval Europe ( 6 Marks )
- The growth of mines and metallurgy in medieval Europe was driven by the increasing demand for metals for weapons, tools, and other goods.
- This led to the development of new mining techniques and the expansion of mining operations throughout Europe.
- The growth of metallurgy also led to the development of new technologies, such as the blast furnace and the waterwheel, which helped to increase production and efficiency.
10. Ummayad economy ( 6 Marks )
- The Ummayad economy was based on a combination of agriculture, trade, and taxation.
- The Ummayads relied heavily on the revenue generated by taxes on non-Muslims, particularly the jizya tax.
- They also developed a sophisticated system of trade, which facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas throughout their empire.
- The Ummayads also invested heavily in public works projects, such as irrigation systems and public buildings, which helped to stimulate economic growth and development.
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