BEGLA- 135 ( ASSIGNMENT 2022- 2023 ) Solution || English in Daily Life
Read the following passage and answer the given questions.
- ‘A great mass’ of something means a great amount.
- When the new method of manufacturing articles in great numbers was introduced, a new name was wanted for it and ‘Mass production’ was the one that came into use.
- In what ways does mass production differ from the older methods of manufacture?
- Formerly a craftsman, or skilled workman, often made the whole of an article himself by hand.
- He put into his work all his skill, all his experience.
- He was proud of the fruits of his labour.
- His reputation, his standing among his fellows, depended on his skill and on his character.
- He would have been ashamed if any serious fault had appeared in his work.
- He was envied and admired by fellow-craftsmen whose skill was not equal to his own.
- Articles made in this way could not be mass-produced.
- Each article differed slightly from the others; in every one there was something of the maker’s individuality.
- The finished article was sold at a high price, the price representing the time and the skill of the craftsman who had made it.
- Many such articles, made long ago with loving care, possess a quality and a beauty that
- mass-produced goods cannot equal.
- The wonderful pottery of ancient China, the lovely carpets of Persia, the engraved sword of Damascus, the silver-ware of the Middle Ages _ all these things show the individual craftsmanship of their long-dead makers.
- These articles were made for the rich and for those who were moderately well off.
- The poorer classes could not hope to possess works of art.
- Their household utensils, their clothes and their farm tools were roughly and cheaply made, though very practical in serving the purposes for which they were designed. [Mass Production by G. C. Thornley]
a) How did the term ‘mass production’ come into use ?
b) Why are handmade articles dearer than mass-produced goods ?
c) Enumerate the qualities of a craftsman in older times.
d) Give a suitable title to the passage.
(a) The term "mass production" was coined by Henry Ford in 1913 to describe the manufacturing technique he pioneered in which interchangeable parts were used to assemble automobiles on a moving assembly line.
This technique allowed for the efficient and cost-effective production of large numbers of identical goods.
The term quickly became associated with industrial manufacturing in general, and is now used to describe any manufacturing process that produces large quantities of standardized products.
(b) Handmade articles are generally more expensive than mass-produced goods for several reasons.
First, handmade items are typically made in small quantities, which increases the cost per unit because the fixed costs of production, such as materials and equipment, are spread over fewer items.
Second, handmade items are often made with higher-quality materials than mass-produced goods, which increases the cost of production.
Third, handmade items are often made by skilled artisans who command higher wages than unskilled workers in a factory setting.
Fourth, handmade items are often considered "luxury" goods because of their uniqueness and the time and skill that goes into making them. As such, they can command a higher price.
Finally, handmade items may take more time to make than mass-produced goods, which also increases their cost.
Overall, handmade items are generally considered more exclusive and unique, and as a result, they are more expensive than mass-produced goods.
(c) Skilled: A craftsman was highly skilled in their craft, often having gone through years of apprenticeship to master their trade.
Attention to detail: A craftsman paid close attention to detail, ensuring that each piece they created was of the highest quality.
Patience: A craftsman had patience to work on a piece for a long time and perfect it.
Creativity: A craftsman had a creative streak that allowed them to come up with new designs and techniques.
Pride in their work: A craftsman took pride in their work and were committed to producing the best possible product.
Adaptability: A craftsman was able to adapt to new tools, technology, and materials as they became available.
Strong work ethic: A craftsman had a strong work ethic, and were dedicated to their craft, often working long hours to perfect their skills.
Sense of community: A craftsman was a part of a community of artisans who shared knowledge, skills and resources.
Independent: A craftsman was independent and self-sufficient, often working alone or in small workshops.
Respect for the material: A craftsman had a deep understanding of the materials they worked with and treated them with respect.
(d) "The Qualities of a Master Craftsman: A Look into the Past"
Question- 2 Use the following words in sentences of your own.
a) "The ancient civilization is known for its beautiful pottery found in the archaeological sites."
b) "He envied his friend's success and wished to have the same level of success in his career."
c) "Individuality is what makes each person unique and special."
d) "The mass-produced items in the factory were all identical and lacked the personal touch of a handmade product."
e) "The silver platter was engraved with intricate patterns, making it a valuable heirloom piece."
1. Change the following sentences from direct speech to indirect speech. ( 10 Marks )
i) The passenger said, “Will you leave the compartment immediately?”
ii) Gandhi said, “Haven’t I the right to travel first class?”
iii) The constable said, “Don’t you understand simple instructions?”
iv) Gandhi said, “Shall I not try to root out the disease of colour prejudice?”
v) The general manager said, “Hasn’t justice been given to you?”
vi) The merchants said, “Isn’t this injustice to be treated badly?”
vii) Gandhi said, “Can’t we lodge a strong protest?”
viii) The official said, “Don’t you know this is a different country?”
ix) The official said, “Do you want me to throw you out?”
x) The official said, “Shall I call the police?”
i) The passenger asked the person to leave the compartment immediately.
ii) Gandhi questioned whether he didn't have the right to travel first class.
iii) The constable asked if the person didn't understand simple instructions.
iv) Gandhi asked if he should not try to root out the disease of color prejudice.
v) The general manager asked if justice hadn't been given to the person
vi) The merchants asked if this wasn't injustice to be treated badly
vii) Gandhi questioned if they couldn't lodge a strong protest
viii) The official asked if the person didn't know that this is a different country
ix) The official asked if the person wants him to throw them out
x) The official asked if he should call the police.
2. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the verb given in brackets. 10 Marks
i) Did you remember (lock) the safe.
ii) Rita hoped (get) a bucket of clean water.
iii) The boss refused (accept) my resignation.
iv) Usha hopes (draw) your portrait before the end of this month.
v) My sister’s afraid of heights. She refused (go) rock climbing.
vi) My American friend invited me (spend) my summer holidays with her.
vii) The air hostess asked the passengers (fasten) their seat belts.
viii) The women had come (draw) water from the well.
ix) They arranged (meet) after office hours.
x) The Sherpa warned the mountaineers not (smoke) while using oxygen masks.
i) "Did you remember to lock the safe?"
ii) "Rita hoped to get a bucket of clean water."
iii) "The boss refused to accept my resignation."
iv) "Usha hopes to draw your portrait before the end of this month."
v) "My sister is afraid of heights. She refused to go rock climbing."
vi) "My American friend invited me to spend my summer holidays with her."
vii) "The air hostess asked the passengers to fasten their seat belts."
viii) "The women had come to draw water from the well."
ix) "They arranged to meet after office hours."
x) "The Sherpa warned the mountaineers not to smoke while using oxygen masks."
1. Draft a biographical sketch of your favourite sportsperson in about 250 words
- My favourite sportsperson is Lionel Messi.
- He is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Paris Saint-Germain and the Argentine national team.
- Messi is widely regarded as one of the greatest football players of all time.
- He began his professional career with Barcelona, where he spent 20 seasons and won numerous individual awards, including ten La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey titles, and four UEFA Champions League titles.
- Messi's career with Barcelona began at a young age, and he quickly established himself as one of the best players in the world.
- He broke several records, including the most goals scored in a calendar year and the most goals scored in La Liga.
- He also won several Ballon d'Or awards, given to the best player in the world, six times in total.
- In addition to his club success, Messi has also had a successful international career.
- He has represented Argentina in several international tournaments, including the World Cup and the Copa America.
- He has also helped Argentina win the Copa America in 2021.
- Off the field, Messi is known for his humility and charitable work.
- He has been involved in various charitable organizations and has supported several causes, including those for children and for the fight against poverty.
- In conclusion, Lionel Messi is a true legend of football, a player who has consistently performed at the highest level, breaking records and winning multiple individual and team awards.
- He is not only a great sportsman but also a great human being. He continues to inspire millions of people around the world with his talent, hard work, and humility.
2. Write a report in about 250 words on ‘Gender Discrimination’ that is still prevalent in our societies.
- Gender discrimination, also known as sex discrimination, is the practice of treating individuals differently based on their gender.
- Despite progress in recent years, gender discrimination is still prevalent in many societies around the world.
- One of the most common forms of gender discrimination is the pay gap.
- Women often earn less than men for performing the same job, and this disparity is even greater for women of color.
- This can have a significant impact on a woman's ability to support herself and her family.
- Another form of gender discrimination is the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions.
- Despite the fact that women make up half of the workforce, they are underrepresented in top management positions and on corporate boards.
- This lack of representation can lead to a lack of diversity in decision-making and can perpetuate discrimination.
- Gender discrimination also occurs in education, where girls are often denied equal access to educational opportunities.
- In many countries, girls are less likely to attend school or to complete their education than boys.
- This can limit their opportunities in life and contribute to the cycle of poverty.
- Gender discrimination also occurs in the form of violence against women.
- Women are more likely to be victims of domestic violence and sexual assault than men.
- This violence not only harms the individual women but also has a negative impact on their families and communities.
- Overall, gender discrimination is still a significant problem in many societies around the world.
- It is important to continue to raise awareness about the issue and to take action to eliminate discrimination in all forms.
- This can be done by promoting equality in the workplace and in education, as well as by supporting laws and policies that protect the rights of women and girls.
3. Write a dialogue between a student wishing to seek admission in IGNOU and an Admission Help Desk Incharge. (250-300 words).
Student: Good morning, I am here to seek admission in IGNOU.
Admission Help Desk Incharge: Good morning, how can I assist you?
Student: I am interested in pursuing a Bachelor's degree in Commerce, and I would like to know the requirements and the procedure for admission.
Admission Help Desk Incharge: To be eligible for the Bachelor's degree in Commerce, you need to have completed your 12th standard or equivalent from a recognized board. Additionally, you will need to submit your educational documents and a passport-sized photograph.
Student: What about the application fee?
Admission Help Desk Incharge: The application fee for the Bachelor's degree in Commerce is INR 1,500, and it can be paid online through our website.
Student: How can I submit the documents?
Admission Help Desk Incharge: The documents can be submitted online along with the application form, or they can be sent by post to the university.
Student: When is the last date for submission of application?
Admission Help Desk Incharge: The last date for submission of application varies depending on the program, but it is usually around a month before the start of the academic session. You can check the specific date on our website.
Student: Thank you for the information. Is there any entrance exam required for the admission?
Admission Help Desk Incharge: No, there is no entrance exam required for the Bachelor's degree in Commerce. Admissions are based on the qualifications and the availability of seats.
Student: Alright, thank you for your help.
Admission Help Desk Incharge: You're welcome. If you have any other questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.