BANS 183 Tourism Anthropology || ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023 (English Medium )
TODAY TOPIC- BANS 183 Tourism Anthropology ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION English Medium
- There are two Sections in the Assignment.
- You have to answer all questions in all the Sections.
( Assignment – I )
Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20X2= 40
A. Define anthropology. Discuss the role of anthropology in studying tourism.
- Anthropology is a social science that studies human beings and their culture, society, and behavior.
- It covers a wide range of topics, including language, beliefs, economics, politics, and other aspects of human existence.
- The role of anthropology in studying tourism is to provide a cultural and sociological perspective on the phenomenon.
- Tourism is a complex and multifaceted industry that involves the interaction between tourists, hosts, and the physical and cultural environment.
- Anthropologists study these interactions to gain a deeper understanding of the cultural, social, and economic impact of tourism.
- One of the main goals of anthropology in tourism is to understand the motivations and experiences of tourists.
- Anthropologists use various research methods, such as participant observation, interviews, and surveys, to learn about the reasons why people travel, what they hope to experience, and how they perceive and interact with different cultures.
- They also study the impact of tourism on local communities and the host culture, exploring how it affects the local economy, environment, and social relationships.
- Another important aspect of anthropology in tourism is the study of the relationships between tourists and hosts.
- Anthropologists examine how the interactions between tourists and hosts influence the tourist experience, and how the attitudes and behaviors of both parties shape the cultural exchange.
- They also explore how power dynamics between tourists and hosts play out, including issues of exploitation, privilege, and cultural appropriation.
- In addition, anthropology in tourism also explores the role of cultural heritage and identity in the tourist experience.
- Anthropologists study how cultural heritage sites, such as monuments, museums, and other attractions, are used by tourists to gain an understanding of the host culture and history.
- They also investigate how tourism affects the preservation and interpretation of cultural heritage, and the ways in which it can both preserve and erode cultural traditions and values.
- Another important contribution of anthropology to the study of tourism is the examination of tourism as a form of globalization.
- Anthropologists study how tourism affects global flows of people, goods, and ideas, and how it contributes to the spread of popular culture and consumerism.
- They also explore how tourism impacts the cultural, political, and economic relationships between different countries and regions, and how it shapes the identities of both tourists and hosts.
- In conclusion, anthropology plays a crucial role in the study of tourism by providing a cultural and sociological perspective on the complex and multifaceted phenomenon.
- Through the use of various research methods and the examination of various aspects of tourism, such as the motivations and experiences of tourists, the relationships between tourists and hosts, cultural heritage and identity, and
- tourism as a form of globalization, anthropologists contribute to a deeper understanding of the cultural, social, and economic impact of tourism.
B. What is authenticity in tourism? Explain with suitable examples.
- Authenticity in tourism refers to the genuineness of a tourist experience that provides a sense of place, culture, history, and local traditions.
- It is about providing tourists with a unique, sincere, and honest experience that allows them to connect with the local community, culture, and environment.
- For example, an authentic tourist experience could involve staying in a traditional local home instead of a commercial hotel, participating in local festivals, trying locally-grown food, visiting historic sites, and engaging with local people and their customs.
- Another example is visiting an indigenous community where tourists can learn about the community’s history, culture, and traditions, and participate in traditional activities such as hunting, fishing, or cooking.
- These experiences provide a deeper understanding and appreciation of the local culture and create a sense of connection between the tourists and the local community.
- In contrast, inauthentic tourist experiences may involve commercialization and commodification of culture, where cultural experiences are reduced to staged performances and cultural practices are reduced to products for sale.
- This type of experience does not reflect the reality of the local culture, and can result in a lack of cultural understanding and a shallow tourist experience.
- It is important for tourism to be authentic because it can have a positive impact on both the local community and the tourist.
- Authentic tourism allows tourists to learn about the local culture and its people, and it can promote cultural exchange and understanding. This can lead to greater respect and appreciation of the local culture and can contribute to sustainable tourism practices.
- Inauthentic tourism, on the other hand, can contribute to the exploitation of local cultures and natural resources, and can result in the homogenization of local cultures.
- Inauthentic tourism can also lead to the degradation of the local environment, which can have a negative impact on the well-being of the local community and the sustainability of tourism in the region.
- Tourism operators have a responsibility to ensure that their products and services are authentic and sustainable.
- This can be achieved by working with local communities and organizations, incorporating local cultural elements into the tourist experience, and promoting responsible and sustainable tourism practices.
- In conclusion, authenticity in tourism is about providing tourists with a genuine and sincere experience that allows them to connect with the local culture and community.
- It is important for tourism to be authentic because it can have positive impacts on both the local community and the tourist, and it can promote cultural exchange and understanding.
- Tourism operators have a responsibility to ensure that their products and services are authentic and sustainable, and this can be achieved by working with local communities and promoting responsible and sustainable tourism practices.
( Assignment – II )
Answer the following in about 250 words each. (Write Short Notes) 10X3 =30
A. What is commodification? Discuss the commodification of religious sites and national parks.
- Commodification refers to the process of treating goods or services as commodities or products that can be bought and sold in the marketplace.
- In other words, it involves the transformation of something from a non-economic item or experience into a commercial product.
- Religious sites and national parks can be examples of commodification when they are transformed into tourist destinations, with commercial activities such as souvenir sales and admission fees generating revenue.
- This can lead to a trade-off between the preservation of the site's cultural or natural heritage and the desire to profit from its commercial appeal.
- In some cases, commodification of religious sites can be seen as sacrilegious or disrespectful, particularly if the commercialization of the site is perceived to detract from its spiritual significance.
- On the other hand, proponents argue that the revenue generated by commodification can be used to preserve and protect the site.
- In the case of national parks, commodification can result in environmental degradation and overcrowding, as increased visitor traffic can strain the park's ecosystem and infrastructure.
- Additionally, commercial activities within the park can detract from the natural experience and challenge the park's mission of preservation and conservation.
- Another aspect to consider when discussing the commodification of religious sites and national parks is the impact on local communities.
- The commercialization of these sites can bring economic benefits to the local area, such as employment and increased tourism.
- However, it can also lead to gentrification and displacement of local residents, as property values and the cost of living increase.
- Additionally, the influx of tourists can result in cultural appropriation, where the local culture and traditions are co-opted and commercialized for profit.
- It's also important to consider the ethical implications of commodification.
- For instance, the commercialization of religious sites raises questions about the appropriate use of such sites and whether they should be used for profit or preserved as cultural or spiritual heritage.
- Additionally, the commercialization of national parks raises questions about the appropriate use of natural resources and whether they should be preserved for future generations or used for short-term economic gain.
- In conclusion, the commodification of religious sites and national parks is a complex issue with many competing interests.
- While commercialization can bring economic benefits, it can also have negative impacts on local communities, the environment, and cultural heritage.
- It is important to consider these trade-offs when making decisions about the commercialization of these sites.
B. Discuss preservation and conservation of two heritage sites in India.
- India is home to a rich cultural and natural heritage, and preserving and conserving these sites is important for future generations.
- Here are two examples of heritage sites in India and the efforts to preserve and conserve them:
- Taj Mahal is a world-famous mausoleum located in Agra, India, and is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
- The Taj Mahal was built in the 17th century as a monument of love and is considered one of India's most iconic cultural heritage sites.
- The Indian government has taken several measures to preserve and conserve the Taj Mahal, including regulating the number of visitors and implementing measures to control air and water pollution.
- Additionally, the Archaeological Survey of India has taken steps to restore the complex and preserve its original features, such as using traditional materials and techniques in the restoration process.
Kaziranga National Park:
- Kaziranga National Park is located in the state of Assam in northeastern India and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- The park is home to the one-horned Indian rhinoceros, as well as other endangered species such as tigers, elephants, and swamp deer.
- To conserve the park's unique ecosystem and wildlife, the Indian government has implemented several measures, including anti-poaching efforts, habitat restoration, and monitoring of wildlife populations.
- Additionally, the government has implemented tourism management plans to ensure that visitor traffic does not negatively impact the park's ecosystem.
- preserving and conserving heritage sites in India is essential to ensure that the country's rich cultural and natural heritage is protected for future generations.
- The Taj Mahal and Kaziranga National Park are two examples of heritage sites in India that are being preserved and conserved through a combination of restoration efforts, environmental management, and visitor management plans.
C. Describe tangible and intangible heritage with suitable examples.
- Tangible heritage refers to physical objects, sites, and structures that have cultural, historical, or archaeological value.
- These tangible heritage sites can be monuments, museums, temples, ruins, artifacts, and manuscripts.
- Examples of tangible heritage include the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Acropolis in Athens, and the Roman Colosseum.
- Intangible heritage refers to non-physical cultural heritage, including traditions, beliefs, customs, music, dance, and oral histories.
- These intangible elements of heritage are often tied to a community's identity and provide a sense of cultural continuity.
- Examples of intangible heritage include traditional folk dances, indigenous storytelling, and religious rituals.
- It's important to note that both tangible and intangible heritage are equally important and interdependent.
- For example, a traditional dance that is performed in a specific region may be connected to the tangible heritage of the area, such as the architecture and landscape. In addition, intangible heritage can often provide valuable information about the history and culture of a region and contribute to our understanding of the past.
- In conclusion, tangible heritage refers to physical objects and structures that have cultural value, while intangible heritage refers to non-physical cultural heritage, including traditions, beliefs, and practices.
- Both tangible and intangible heritage are important components of cultural heritage, and preserving and conserving both is essential to maintaining cultural continuity and understanding our shared cultural heritage.
Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 5X6=30
A. Physical anthropology
- Physical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the biological aspects of human evolution and variation.
- It examines the physical and biological characteristics of human beings and their evolution, such as anatomy, genetics, and physiology.
- Physical anthropologists also study the evolution of non-human primates and the relationships between different species.
B. Archaeological anthropology
- Archaeological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of human culture and behavior in the past, using material remains and artifacts as evidence.
- It involves the excavation, analysis, and interpretation of sites and artifacts to reconstruct the social, economic, and political systems of past cultures.
- Archaeological anthropologists work to understand the human experience over time and across cultures, providing insights into our shared cultural heritage.
C. Types of tourism
- There are several types of tourism, including adventure tourism, cultural tourism, eco-tourism, and medical tourism.
- Adventure tourism involves physically challenging activities, such as hiking, rafting, and rock climbing.
- Cultural tourism focuses on experiencing the culture, history, and traditions of a destination.
- Eco-tourism is focused on preserving natural environments and promoting sustainable tourism practices.
- Medical tourism involves traveling for medical treatments and procedures.
D. Local environment versus tourist
- The local environment is shaped by the cultural and physical characteristics of a region, while tourists bring their own cultural beliefs and practices with them.
- These differences can sometimes lead to conflicts and cultural misunderstandings.
- For example, the behavior and attitudes of tourists can have a negative impact on the local environment and culture, leading to over-development, pollution, and degradation of natural resources.
E. Eco tourism
- Eco-tourism is a form of sustainable tourism that focuses on preserving natural environments and promoting sustainable tourism practices.
- Eco-tourism activities often include wildlife watching, hiking, and cultural experiences that highlight the unique natural and cultural heritage of a destination.
- The goal of eco-tourism is to provide economic benefits to local communities while minimizing negative impacts on the environment.
F. Edible identities
- Edible identities refer to the cultural, social, and historical significance of food and food practices.
- Edible identities encompass the ways in which food is produced, consumed, and shared and are an important aspect of cultural heritage.
- They can provide insights into the cultural, economic, and political systems of a society and contribute to our understanding of the diversity of human cultures.
- Additionally, food practices are often tied to personal and collective memories, providing a sense of cultural continuity.
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