BHIC-133 ( HISTORY OF INDIA FROM 1206-1707 ) || ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023 ( English Medium )
TODAY TOPIC- BHIC-133 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM 1206-1707- ASSIGNMENT SOLUTION 2022-2023
Course code: BHIC-133
Note: There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions given in the Sections.
( Assignment - I )
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Critically examine the local administration of the Vijayanagara empire. ( 20 Marks )
- The Vijayanagara Empire, which existed from the 14th to the 17th century in South India, was one of the largest and most powerful empires of its time.
- Its administration was characterized by a strong central government and a well-organized system of local administration.
- In this we will critically examine the local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire was organized on the basis of a hierarchy of officials.
- At the lowest level were the village headmen, who were responsible for the day-to-day administration of their respective villages.
- They were assisted by a group of officials, including accountants, tax collectors, and police officers.
- At the next level were the district-level officials, who oversaw the administration of several villages.
- They were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining law and order, and ensuring that the villages under their jurisdiction were functioning smoothly.
- At the highest level were the provincial governors, who were appointed by the king and were responsible for overseeing the administration of several districts.
- The local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire was efficient and well-organized.
- The village headmen were selected on the basis of their merit and were given the responsibility of maintaining law and order in their respective villages.
- They were also responsible for collecting taxes and maintaining accounts.
- They were required to submit regular reports to their superiors, which ensured accountability and transparency in the system.
- The district-level officials were responsible for ensuring that the villages under their jurisdiction were functioning smoothly.
- They were required to visit the villages regularly and to resolve any issues that arose.
- They were also responsible for maintaining law and order in their districts and for collecting taxes.
- They were required to submit regular reports to their superiors, which ensured that the administration was functioning efficiently.
- The provincial governors were responsible for overseeing the administration of several districts.
- They were appointed by the king and were responsible for maintaining law and order in their provinces.
- They were required to visit the districts under their jurisdiction regularly and to resolve any issues that arose.
- They were also responsible for collecting taxes and for ensuring that the administration was functioning efficiently.
- However, there were certain weaknesses in the local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- One of the biggest weaknesses was the lack of a uniform system of taxation.
- The taxes varied from village to village, which made it difficult to maintain uniformity in the system.
- This often led to corruption and exploitation by the officials, who would collect more taxes than what was due.
- Another weakness was the lack of effective checks and balances in the system.
- The officials were often appointed on the basis of their loyalty to the king rather than their merit.
- This often led to nepotism and corruption, which undermined the efficiency of the system.
- In conclusion, the local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire was well-organized and efficient.
- It was characterized by a strong central government and a hierarchy of officials who were responsible for maintaining law and order, collecting taxes, and ensuring that the administration was functioning smoothly.
- However, there were certain weaknesses in the system, including the lack of a uniform system of taxation and the lack of effective checks and balances.
- Despite these weaknesses, the local administration of the Vijayanagara Empire was a remarkable achievement of its time and set a standard for administration in South India for centuries to come.
2. Discuss Mughal relations with the Marathas. ( 20 Marks )
- The Mughal Empire was one of the most powerful empires in India, which existed from the 16th to the 19th century.
- The Maratha Empire, on the other hand, was a powerful confederacy of several states that emerged in the 17th century in western India.
- In this essay, we will discuss the relations between the Mughals and the Marathas.
- The relations between the Mughals and the Marathas were complex and often marked by conflict.
- Initially, the Mughals and the Marathas were allies, with the Marathas providing crucial support to the Mughals in their campaigns against their rivals.
- However, this alliance was short-lived, and soon the Mughals and the Marathas were engaged in a bitter struggle for power.
- The first major conflict between the Mughals and the Marathas occurred during the reign of Aurangzeb.
- Aurangzeb was determined to expand the Mughal Empire and saw the Marathas as a potential threat.
- He launched several campaigns against the Marathas and tried to suppress their power.
- However, the Marathas were able to resist the Mughal attacks and even managed to expand their territory in southern India.
- The conflict between the Mughals and the Marathas continued for several decades, with both sides trying to gain the upper hand.
- The Marathas were able to build a powerful empire in western India, while the Mughals were struggling to maintain their control over their vast empire.
- The Mughals tried to contain the Marathas by signing treaties and alliances with other regional powers, but these efforts were largely unsuccessful.
- One of the most significant conflicts between the Mughals and the Marathas occurred during the reign of the Mughal emperor, Muhammad Shah.
- The Marathas had become a dominant force in western India and were demanding greater autonomy from the Mughals.
- The Mughals were unable to meet their demands, which led to a series of conflicts between the two sides.
- The conflict between the Mughals and the Marathas eventually came to a head in the Battle of Panipat in 1761.
- The Marathas were defeated by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Durrani, who was supported by the Mughals.
- This defeat marked the beginning of the decline of the Maratha Empire and the end of their struggle against the Mughals.
- In conclusion, the relations between the Mughals and the Marathas were complex and often marked by conflict.
- While the two sides started as allies, their relationship deteriorated over time, with both sides trying to gain the upper hand.
- The Marathas were able to build a powerful empire in western India, while the Mughals struggled to maintain their control over their vast empire.
- The conflict between the two sides eventually came to a head in the Battle of Panipat, which marked the end of the Maratha Empire and the beginning of their decline.
Assignment - II
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
3. Briefly discuss Deccan policy of the Delhi Sultans. ( 10 Marks )
- The Deccan plateau in southern India was an important region for the Delhi Sultanate, which ruled over most of India from the 13th to the 16th century.
- The Deccan was known for its fertile lands, rich mineral resources, and strategic location, making it a valuable region to control.
- we will discuss the Deccan policy of the Delhi Sultans.
- The Delhi Sultans had a complex relationship with the Deccan region.
- They initially saw the Deccan as a valuable region to conquer and expand their empire.
- The first Sultan to make significant inroads into the Deccan was Alauddin Khilji, who launched several campaigns against the Kakatiya dynasty and other regional powers.
- He also established a series of forts and garrisons in the region to maintain control.
- the Delhi Sultans soon realized that the Deccan was a difficult region to control.
- The region was characterized by rugged terrain, dense forests, and strong local rulers who were difficult to subdue.
- The Sultans also faced frequent rebellions and uprisings by local populations, which further weakened their hold on the region.
- To deal with these challenges, the Delhi Sultans adopted a policy of diplomacy and accommodation towards the Deccan.
- They started to form alliances with local rulers and appointed them as governors of the region.
- The Sultans also granted them various privileges, including exemption from paying taxes and tribute to the central government.
- The Delhi Sultans also tried to use religion as a tool to gain the support of the local population.
- They appointed Sufi saints as spiritual leaders and granted them land and resources to establish their orders.
- This helped to create a sense of religious harmony and tolerance in the region, which helped to reduce the level of resistance and opposition towards the Delhi Sultans.
- In conclusion, the Deccan policy of the Delhi Sultans was characterized by a mix of conquest, diplomacy, and accommodation.
- While they initially tried to conquer the region, they soon realized that it was difficult to control and adopted a policy of accommodation towards local rulers.
- This helped to maintain a certain level of stability and control over the region, although the Deccan remained a contested and volatile region throughout the period of Delhi Sultanate rule.
4. Discuss the main features of the Sultanate architecture. ( 10 Marks )
- Sultanate architecture refers to the style of architecture that was prevalent during the reign of the Delhi Sultanate, which ruled over most of India from the 13th to the 16th century.
- Sultanate architecture was characterized by its fusion of Indian and Islamic architectural styles, resulting in a unique and distinct architectural style.
- In this essay, we will discuss the main features of Sultanate architecture.
- One of the most prominent features of Sultanate architecture was the use of red sandstone and white marble.
- Red sandstone was widely used for the construction of buildings, while white marble was used for decorative elements such as carvings, inlays, and screens.
- The use of red sandstone and white marble gave the buildings a distinct character and added to their grandeur.
- Another important feature of Sultanate architecture was the use of arches and domes.
- Arches were used to create a sense of space and height, while domes were used to provide a sense of grandeur and magnificence.
- The use of arches and domes was a hallmark of Islamic architecture and was incorporated into the Indian architectural style during the Sultanate period.
- Sultanate architecture also made extensive use of decorative elements such as intricate carvings, inlays, and screens.
- These decorative elements were used to enhance the beauty and elegance of the buildings and to create a sense of luxury and opulence.
- One of the most notable features of Sultanate architecture was the development of the Indo-Islamic architectural style.
- This style was characterized by the fusion of Indian and Islamic architectural elements, resulting in a unique and distinct style.
- This style was developed during the Sultanate period and was further developed during the Mughal period, which followed.
- the main features of Sultanate architecture were the use of red sandstone and white marble, arches and domes, decorative elements, and the development of the Indo-Islamic architectural style.
- Sultanate architecture was a unique and distinct style of architecture that reflected the fusion of Indian and Islamic architectural elements.
- It remains an important part of India's architectural heritage and continues to inspire architects and designers around the world.
5. Give a brief account of the main features and working of the jagir system under the Mughals. ( 10 Marks )
- The Jagir system was an important aspect of the Mughal administration and revenue collection.
- The word "Jagir" is derived from the Persian word "Jagir" meaning "a share."
- Under the Jagir system, the Mughal Emperor granted land or revenue rights to his nobles or military commanders in exchange for their services.
- The main features of the Jagir system were as follows:
1- Granting of land or revenue rights:
- The Mughal Emperor granted land or revenue rights to his nobles or military commanders, known as Jagirdars.
- The size of the Jagir varied according to the rank and services of the Jagirdar.
2- The revenue collection:
- The Jagirdar was responsible for collecting the revenue from the Jagir, and the amount collected was his share of the revenue.
- The Jagirdar was also responsible for maintaining law and order in the Jagir.
3- Transfer of Jagir:
- The Jagirdar could not sell or transfer the Jagir, but he could pass it on to his heirs or assign it to someone else with the Emperor's permission.
4- Services in lieu of the Jagir:
- The Jagirdar was required to provide military or administrative services to the Mughal Emperor in exchange for the Jagir.
- This was a way for the Mughal Emperor to maintain a standing army and ensure the loyalty of his nobles.
5- Assessment of the Jagir:
- The Jagir was assessed every few years to determine its revenue potential and the services required from the Jagirdar.
The Jagir system worked as follows:
1- The Mughal Emperor granted a Jagir to a noble or military commander.
2- The Jagirdar collected revenue from the Jagir and provided military or administrative services to the Mughal Emperor.
3- The Jagirdar could pass on the Jagir to his heirs or assign it to someone else with the Emperor's permission.
4- The Jagir was assessed every few years to determine its revenue potential and the services required from the Jagirdar.
Assignment - III
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
6. Arabic and Persian Historiography ( 6 Marks )
- Arabic and Persian Historiography are two major types of historical writing in the Islamic world.
- Arabic historians focused on the early Islamic period and the history of the Arab people, while Persian historians wrote about the history of Iran and the Persian-speaking world.
- Both forms of historiography were highly developed, and their works provide a valuable source of information on Islamic history, culture, and society.
7. Humayun and the Afghans ( 6 Marks )
- Humayun, the second Mughal Emperor, faced a major challenge from the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri, who overthrew him and established his own dynasty.
- Humayun spent several years in exile, during which he gathered an army and eventually defeated Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah Suri, and regained his throne.
- This victory allowed Humayun to lay the foundation for the Mughal Empire, which would go on to become one of the most powerful empires in Indian history.
8. Alauddin Khalji’s market control measures ( 6 Marks )
- Alauddin Khalji was a powerful ruler of the Delhi Sultanate who implemented a number of market control measures to stabilize prices and ensure adequate food supplies.
- He introduced a system of fixed prices for basic commodities, imposed controls on the movement of grain and other goods, and established a network of state-controlled markets.
- These measures were intended to prevent hoarding and price gouging by merchants, and to ensure that the common people had access to affordable food.
9. Monotheistic Movements ( 6 Marks )
- Monotheistic movements are religious movements that emphasize the belief in a single God.
- Some of the most well-known monotheistic religions include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
- These religions emerged in different parts of the world and at different times, but they all share a belief in the existence of a single, all-powerful deity.
10. European influence on Mughal school of painting ( 6 Marks )
- The Mughal school of painting was a distinctive style of painting that emerged during the Mughal period.
- The Mughal emperors were great patrons of the arts, and they invited European artists to their court, where they learned new techniques and styles.
- European influence can be seen in the use of perspective and shading in Mughal paintings, as well as in the introduction of new subjects such as landscapes and portraits.
- However, the Mughal painters adapted these techniques to their own style, creating a unique blend of European and Indian artistic traditions.
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